In 1910, Walter L. Fleming publishes an article entitled “Ex-Slave Pension ‘Frauds” in which he credits Walter Vaughan with having an honest pension lobbying operation, but condemns other groups as engaged in fraud.


Reference: Deadria C. Farmer-Paellmann, Excerpt from Black Exodus: The Ex-Slave Pension Movement Reader,in Should America Pay?: Slavery and the Raging Debate on Reparations(ed. Raymond A. Winbush, PhD 2003) at p. 29

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