In 1972, Mary Frances Berry publishes an article entitled “Reparations for the Freedman, 1890-1916: Fraudulent Practices or Justice Denied?,” concluding that no evidence was presented that leaders of the ex-slave pension movement had engaged in fraud.


Reference: Deadria C. Farmer-Paellmann, Excerpt from Black Exodus: The Ex-Slave Pension Movement Reader,in Should America Pay?: Slavery and the Raging Debate on Reparations(ed. Raymond A. Winbush, PhD 2003) at p. 23

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