U.S. Congress passed a joint resolution acknowledging and apologizing to Native Hawaiians the illegal United States–aided overthrow of the sovereign Hawaiian nation.

The reparations payments from 1994-2016, with the exception of Virginia Governor Mark Warner’s 2002 apology and Georgetown University’s actions, are taken from “Black and Blue Chicago Finds a New Way to Heal” by Yana Kunichoff and Sarah Macaraeg, YES Magazine, Spring 2017; and Long Overdue: The Politics of Racial Reparations: From 40 Acres to Atonement and Beyond by Charles P. Henry, 2007, NYU Press.

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